Click on any green morpheme link in the text analyses and the explanation of that morpheme will appear in this frame.


:         separates two meanings that are fused in the same morpheme

-         separates different morphemes (minimal distinct units of meaning)

1        ‑ni; ‑y       first person = I          (by default:  subject on verbs or nominalised verbs;  possessor my on nouns)

2        ‑nki; ‑yki  second person = you     (by default:  subject on verbs or nominalised verbs;  possessor your nouns)

3        ‑n; ‑n       third person = he/‌she/‌it    (by default:  subject on verbs or nominalised verbs;  possessor his/‌her/‌its nouns)

abv      ‑manta      ‘ablative’, wide range of case-type meanings, particularly from, since, about

acv      ‑ta           accusative, direct object of a verb e.g. I want bread;  also used on infinitives dependent on a verb e.g. I want to eat

adnl    ‑pas          additional too, as well, and;  with wh‑ question words forms indefinite pronouns:  some-thing, any-body, etc.

ag       ‑q            agent: added to a verb stem to derive from it a noun for who ‘does’ the verb -er, e.g. sing-er

apx      ‑niq          approximate: added to a noun stem to add a sense of roughly, around, approximately

aug     ‑karay       augmentative’ big

conj    ‑chá         speaker’s conjecture, supposition or expression of possibility but not complete certainty

condit  ‑man        ‘conditional’, roughly equivalent to English conditional mood but also as something of an optative, very common also in polite requests and questions

csv      ‑chi          causative: to make somebody else do the verb:  e.g. Make him eat it!

ctv      ‑taq          contrastive but, and

defin    ‑puni        definitive really, absolutely

dim      ‑cha         diminutive

dir      ‑m(i)        direct evidence: speaker has personally witnessed or experienced this fact

drv     various      derivational morphemes (various)

dtv     ‑paq         dative: indicates the person who benefits for; also (together with the pdg suffix) indicates the purpose:  for, in order to

dub     ‑chus        dubitative:  expresses uncertainty or doubt [-chus is formed originally from ynq -chu + conj -ch(á), or in some cases -chu + rpv-s(i)]

ep       ‑ni           eases pronunciation, no meaning

excl     ‑ku           pluraliser for exclusive we (excludes hearer) and they;  always found following 1 ‑y or 3 ‑n respectively

foc      various      focus identifies the word which carries the new information for the hearer

fut      various      future tense

gen     ‑p(a)        genitive of, ’s

incl     ‑n‑chik      pluraliser for inclusive we (includes hearer) and you;  always found following 1 –n(i) or 2 –nki/‑yki respectively

incv     ‑nti          ‘inclusive’:   together with, as well as

inf      ‑y             infinitive suffix on verb stems to, as in the verb form to eat;  or just makes a noun form from the verb:  eat-ing

ioj      ‑man        indirect object to, for; also used for direction to(wards)

itl       ‑wan         instrumental: the ‘tool’ something is done with;  also the accompanier with

lcv      ‑pi           locative, i.e. ‘place in’ in, at, on

ltv      ‑lla          limitative only;  also has many other specific uses when combined with other suffixes

neg     ‑chu         negative marker (always accompanies negator word mana)

nml     ‑na           nominaliser (derives noun from verb stem)

oj                      person object (direct or indirect) marker of verb;  suffix goes on the verb

past    ‑r(q)a       past tense (overt marker often omitted, especially where verb has a ‘perfect’ sense, i.e. still relevant to the present)

paug    ‑sapa        augmentative of possessed’ having a big..:  e.g. sinqa-sapa having a big nose, ‘big-nose’

pdg     ‑na           pending future action;  also obligation to do the verb

pgv     ‑chka        progressive aspect of verb

pl       ‑kuna        plural (of nouns or pronouns)

pplgd   ‑spa          gerund-type participle -ing;  e.g. taki-spa hamurqan s/‌he came sing-ing

pplsb   ‑pti          subordinating participle -ing, used for conditions in constructions for when, if  e.g. hamu-pti‑n:  if/when he comes

pppl    ‑sqa          past participle, used for deriving adjectives;  also used for relative what:  e.g. rura-sqa what is/was done

psv      ‑yuq         derivational possessive having, with

reas     ‑rayku       reason:  added to a noun stem to add a sense of because of, for x reason, x is why…

rel      ‑n            relational part of

rfxv    ‑ku           reflexive verb form self, e.g. kick oneself;  also corresponds to English passive, impersonal or intransitive verbs e.g. is done, happens

rpv      ‑s(i)         reportative (‘indirect evidence’):  speaker has not personally witnessed or experienced this fact, has only heard of it from others

simil    ‑hina        similitudinal  like:  e.g. warmi‑hina  like a woman.  Disputed status (also called ‘comparative’), sometimes taken as a case marker;  sometimes taken as a free morpheme (there is a homonymous standalone root form meaning thus, frequent in these texts too).

top     ‑qa           topic ≈ what the sentence is ‘about’, as the attention of the wider discussion switches from one thing to another

trans   ‑mu          translocative:  movement towards the speaker, or doing the verb elsewhere

vbpl    ‑ku           plural (of subject or object) of verb

ynq     ‑chu         yes/‌no question marker